Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy

Year 4 - Part III / MASt - Courses

Students registered for this course will find all relevant resources and materials on Moodle. (NST Part III: Materials Science). Summaries of the topics covered are below.

In addition to attending lectures, students will undertake an Individual Research Project. Also, if a Vacation Report was not submitted at the start of Part II then it must be submitted at the start of Part III.

Click on a course title for more information.

Michaelmas Term 12-Lecture courses

    • In this course, thermodynamic and kinetic principles governing metal production and recycling will be presented. Iron and steel making will be covered in greater depth followed by copper, aluminium and titanium production and refining. The importance of recycling metals and other by-products of metal production will be discussed as an integral part of metal refining flow sheets. Case studies dealing with stainless steel production and recycling of selected metals or devices will be studied.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Introduction to metal production and recycling; statistics
      • - Routes to iron & steelmaking - blast furnace; thermodynamics of liquid iron alloys; dilute solutions; alternate standard states; interaction parameters; metal-slag equilibria; desiliconisation of iron; slag basicity; ionic theory of slags; desulfurisation; basic oxygen steelmaking; refining reactions in steel; dissolution of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in liquid steel; deoxidation of liquid steel; electric arc furnace steelmaking; secondary steelmaking; stainless steel production
      • - Extraction of copper; hydrometallurgical route and electrowinning of copper; pyrometallurgical route; flash smelting; converting; and electrorefining
      • - Extraction of aluminium; Bayer's process; Hall-Heroult Cell for electrowinning aluminium from a molten salt Titanium production using the Kroll process
      • - Recycling issues for the future and new technological opportunities - Case studies
    • This course is in two distinct parts. In the first part of this course, attention will be focused on the fundamental science relevant to surfaces. Topics addressed will include bonding at the atomic scale, contact between surfaces at different measurement scales, an analysis and appreciation of friction between surfaces, the lubrication of surfaces in practical engineering situations and mechanisms of wear as a consequence of surface contact. The second part of the course will focus on ways in which surfaces can be modified or coated to achieve a combination of properties in both the surface and the underlying bulk that would not otherwise be achieved. The course concludes with a number of practical case studies of surface engineering.

      On completion of this course, students should have an appreciation of the diverse ways in which the modification or the coating of surfaces can be used to increase wear resistance, to improve corrosion resistance, to improve fatigue resistance of bulk materials or to reduce friction of underlying bulk materials.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - An analysis of interactions between solid surfaces at the molecular and atomic level
      • - Contact between macroscopic surfaces
      • - Friction and lubrication
      • - Sliding wear, abrasive wear and erosive wear
      • - Hardness testing
      • - Surface engineering processing techniques: chemical modification of surfaces, mechanical modification of surfaces, deposition processes for coatings
      • - Case studies of surface engineering
    • This aim of the first part of this course is to build on and complement the polymer topics covered in IA, IB and part II. We will begin by covering models for single polymer chains (partly revision from previous years) and methods for experimentally determining chain dimensions, before considering polymers in solution and polymer phase diagrams. We will then move on to look at polymeric adhesive systems and electronic properties of polymers, and will finish by considering the physical and chemical performance limits of polymers.

      The second half of the course covers polymer processing, which concerns the efficient control of polymer manufacturing, harnessing and controlling the intrinsic properties of macromolecules to achieve desired end products. Its ongoing importance stems from the need to control existing processes to make new objects, use different materials, reduce wastage and energy costs, make lighter products, improve properties and lower the price. We will begin by covering the basics of polymer melt rheology and will then cover the consequences of material behaviour during the processing stages, with a consideration of the unique behaviours seen with macromolecular melt flow. We will conclude with an overview of industrial processing methods and processing design.

      The first part of this lecture course will cover:

      • - Models for single polymer chains and experimental determination of chain dimensions
      • - Polymers in solution: Flory-Huggins theory and solubility parameters
      • - Phase diagrams: polymer/solvent mixtures, polymer blends, block copolymers
      • - Measurement of phase separation
      • - Polymer adhesive systems: pressure-sensitive adhesives, liquid adhesives, measurement of bond strength of adhesion
      • - Electronic properties of polymers: composites, ionic conduction, electronic conduction in conjugated polymers
      • - Physical and chemical performance limits: glass transition, melting, degradation

      The second part of this lecture course will cover:

      • - Basics of Polymer Melt Rheology
      • - Materials Behaviour During Processing
      • - Industrial Processing Methods
      • - Processing Design
    • The term 'superalloy' applies to metal alloys which perform well at high temperatures in structural applications. In this course we use a rather more specific definition meaning alloys with a major component of nickel, and containing sufficient alloying additions of Al to produce ordered precipitate phases at the intended working temperatures. Modern alloys contain over 10 different elements, but the presence of aluminium is critical, because it is the only element able to produce effective ordered precipitates and a protective oxide.

      This course looks at the structure and properties of high temperature nickel based superalloys, and relates these to the stringent and multiple demands of critical applications; specifically turbine discs and blades. This includes not only the composition of the alloys and the role of the individual elements, but also the vital role of microstructure and the processing necessary to produce this. In the process of examining superalloys we will also look at strengthening mechanisms in general, the role of grain boundaries and various modelling approaches with wider applications in metallic systems. We will extend these principles to some of the areas of current research for improved materials solutions.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Development of superalloys, uses and properties
      • - Alloy composition and microstructure
      • - Origins of strength
      • - Processing Single Crystals
      • - Single crystal alloys Design
      • - Creep of Single Crystal Alloys
      • - Processing of Disc Alloys
      • - Disc alloy Design
      • - Disc Geometry and Stress Distribution
    • In this course, we will begin by investigating the relationships between structure and properties in soft natural materials, including proteins, polysaccharides, and composites of proteins and polysaccharides (particularly soft tissues in animals).

      We will then explore the issues surrounding the design of a material to replace a failed natural material in a medical context. We will focus on soft tissue replacement, including spinal disc replacement, vascular grafts, skin grafts and tissue engineering scaffolds. We will also cover drug delivery systems, particularly those for controlled delivery.

      This lecture course will cover:

      Structure and properties of:

      • - proteins: silks, keratin, collagen, protein rubbers
      • - polysaccharides: cellulose, starch, chitin, pectin, carrageenans, hyaluronic acid
      • - soft tissue in animals: tendon and ligament, skin, sea anemone skeleton, artery, cartilage, intervertebral disc

      Biomedical materials:

      • - issues to consider when designing a biomaterial
      • - spinal disc replacement blood contacting implants: vascular grafts and heart valves skin grafts tissue engineering scaffolds controlled drug delivery devices
    • Superconductivity was discovered a little over a century ago and, although it can only be observed at cryogenic temperatures, it enables both the sensitive measurement of very small magnetic fields and the generation of very high fields, with applications from medical diagnostics to high energy physics. In its second century, superconductivity has a large role to play in meeting energy needs, increasing energy efficiency, and supporting renewable generation and distribution of electricity.

      The focus of this course is on the materials science of superconducting materials and devices. After briefly covering the nature and origins of superconductivity, the first part of this course will investigate how materials properties for electrical and magnetic applications can be optimised. In the second part, you will understand how the properties of superconducting devices are related to the underlying properties of superconductors such as the density of states. The lectures will explain how these properties can be exploited, for example as highly sensitive magnetic field sensors and very low energy electronic devices. The course will also cover how such devices may be fabricated and the materials used.

      This lecture course will cover:

      Superconducting materials (lectures 1 - 6, Dr Simon Hopkins):

      • - A brief overview of the discovery, characteristics and theory of superconductivity
      • - Superconductors with internal magnetic flux: intermediate state, mixed state, flux pinning and the critical state model
      • - Superconducting elements, alloys and compounds
      • - The production and processing of practical superconducting wires and tapes, including Nb-Ti, Nb3Sn, MgB2, BSCCO and YBCO conductors
      • - Applications of superconductivity: MRI, NMR, high energy physics and rotating machines

      Superconducting devices (lectures 7 - 12, Prof. Mark Blamire):

      • - The BCS theory and tunnel junctions
      • - The Josephson effect and Josephson tunnel junctions
      • - The proximity effect and SNS Josephson junctions
      • - SQUIDs and flux quantum devices
      • - Particle and photon detector devices
      • - Superconductor / ferromagnet devices
    • This course covers the thermal properties of solids. Starting from a thermodynamic foundation, the course will consider a wide range of functional properties that arise in materials where the thermal properties are strongly coupled to the structural, electrical, magnetic and optical properties.

      The wide range of experimental techniques that are employed to characterise and understand the materials above will be also considered. These will include neutron scattering, synchrotron-based techniques, calorimetry in external fields, scanning thermal microscopy and infra-red imaging.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - magnetic shape memory and magnetic superelastic materials
      • - invar materials
      • - phononic materials
      • - thermoelectric materials
      • - spin-caloritronic materials
      • - magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric materials
      • - phase change materials
      • - self-healing materials
      • - chromogenic materials
    • A course covering the most important solid-state phase transformations that occur in steels. This includes atomic mechanisms, thermodynamics, kinetics, microstructural development and the design of steels, supported by specific case studies.

      The material is introduced in sufficient detail to enable the quantitative design of steels based on the fundamental aspects described above.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Martensite in steels
      • - Bainite in steels
      • - Alloy design: strong bainite
      • - Widmanstaetten ferrite
      • - Allotriomorphic ferrite
      • - Pearlite
      • - Overall transformation kinetics
      • - TRIP steels
      • - TWIP steels
      • - Mitigation of residual stress
      • - Bulk nanostructured steel

Lent Term 12-Lecture courses

    • Within this course, thin films are defined as solid films formed from a vapour source, built up by controlled condensation of individual atomic, molecular, or ionic species. It generally concerns film thickness of a few microns or less. Heterostructures and interfaces are also relevant.

      The different vapour deposition techniques are described, followed by a discussion of the nucleation and growth of films, and the resultant film microstructures. Film properties, and methods of characterisation are then discussed. An emphasis is given to the control of film growth, through control of the deposition methods, and the link between film structure and properties.

      A final section on research applications, and scale-up, pulls together some of the themes.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Deposition Techniques: Physical Vapour Deposition (Evaporation, Sputtering, Laser Ablation / PLD); Chemical Vapour Deposition; Deposition Systems
      • - Growth Processes: Nucleation; Epitaxial Growth; Growth Structures
      • - Film Properties & Characterisation: Film Stress; Film Thickness; Microstructure; Real Time Analysis; Electrical Characterisation; Mechanical Characterisation
      • - Applications: Research Applications / Industrial Applications & Scale
    • Whatever the primary function, it is generally the onset of flow and failure processes that limit the lifetime and application of a material. Such processes are usually treated in terms of constants, such as a flow or failure stresses, where time is unimportant. However, these simplifications do not apply in hard, creep-resistant materials, even when deforming at room temperature. The aim of this course is to show how existing ideas can be extended to allow an understanding of why different types of materials behave as they do.

      Before the course begins, you might like to read chapter 2 of "Deformation Mechanism Maps" by Frost and Ashby, which gives a good overview of different deformation processes, including the lattice resistance. You should also read chapter 17, which is concerned with how materials fall into groups with similar properties. Another book to read is J.J. Gilman, "Electronic Basis of the Strength of Materials".

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Why do dislocations form? Is there a resistance to their movement? Misfit energy of a dislocation: in-plane strains and misalignments. Relation of misalignment to interatom potential. Why do dislocations form. The work required to move a dislocation: concept of the lattice resistance. How does the misfit energy change as the dislocation moves.
      • - How do the predictions compare with observations? What controls ease of dislocation motion. Effect of the dislocation width. The lattice resistance in some typical materials. Diamond (also Si, GaAs), glide and shuffle planes; TiC, TiN; b.c.c. metals, e.g. Fe; c.c.p. metals. Overall comparison with observations. Effect of crystal structure and bonding.
      • - How is dislocation motion possible below the Peierls stress? Deformation as a thermally activated process. The rate of flow and the dislocation velocity. Magnitude of the activation energy. Effect of τ on the activation energy. Effect of applied stress on dislocation velocity. Temperature dependence of yield stress.
      • - How important is temperature when other obstacles control dislocation motion? When is deformation thermally activated. Other obstacles to dislocation motion: forest dislocations. Comparison of magnitude of effect of forest dislocations and lattice resistance. Estimate of energy required to overcome forest dislocation obstacles. Comparison with observed behaviour in Fe and Ni. Logarithmic creep and limited thermal activation.
      • - Why does jerky flow occur? Yield drops and Lüders bands. Criteria for yield drop behaviour in crystals. Change in dislocation density during yielding, e.g. Cu. Effect of strain-rate exponent, e.g. Fe. Solutes. Lüders bands and forming, e.g. nylon.
      • - How can deformation occur without work hardening? Recovery, its importance in processes at high temperatures. Rate of recovery. Friedel equation, e.g. LiF. Glide and recovery together: steady-state dislocation creep. Predictions and observations of creep rates. Role of diffusion. Comparison with experimental observations.
      • - Why limit glide if diffusion is rate controlling? Dislocation glide in particle hardened systems. Effects of increasing temperature on glide. Particle-hardened alloys.
      • - How else might creep occur? Diffusional flow. Effect of applied stress on atom potential at grain boundaries. Rate of flow. Importance of grain-size. Need for grain-boundary sliding.
      • - Can we replace nickel-based superalloys? Advantages of present systems. Uses & requirements. Possibilities: elements, compounds & intermetallics. Complications. Platinum group alloys. Refractory metal alloys. Others.
      • - Stability against failure. Inhomogeneous flow in solid materials. Superplasticity. The onset of tensile failure and necking. Observations of flow in superplastic alloys. Interacting flow processes. Mechanisms of superplastic flow. Superplastic materials and forming, e.g. Ti, SiC.
    • Ceramics are inorganic materials that are typically polycrystalline and non-metallic. They continue to be exploited in pottery, as they have been for several millenia, but nowadays they are also exploited in hi-tech products for their electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties (magnetic properties will not be considered here).

      In this course, we will explore the basic science and applications of these materials, exploiting the electrical degree of freedom in all cases. We will discuss current applications that include fuel cells, data storage and flash goggles; and future applications that include nanoswitches and electrocaloric cooling.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Dielectric properties of ceramics
      • - Electrical conductivity in ceramics
      • - Piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and ferroelectricity
      • - Electro-optic ceramics
    • Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) are among the most powerful analytical tools available for materials scientists. The ability to determine atomic structure through imaging and diffraction makes the technique a mainstay for materials characterisation and the inclusion of sensitivity to composition and electromagnetic polarisation means that many aspects of solid-state science can be investigated.

      This course aims to provide a broad insight into the operation of TEM and the specific operation in a number of different analytical modes. The application of the technique to modern materials research will be highlighted through the inclusion of recent research articles with the aim to provide those students continuing to research degrees with useful practical knowledge base of the role of TEM in modern research.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Fundamentals of lens optics and the specific limitations of electron lenses
      • - Electron diffraction and electron crystallography
      • - Imaging theory
      • - Contrast arising from dynamical scattering
      • - Scanning probe microscopy
      • - Spectroscopic analysis in the TEM
    • In this course, we will learn about the impact of computation on materials science and the emerging field of Materials Informatics. Computer models of materials are widely used, but there is an increasing trend towards data driven approaches. This data might be derived from high throughput computations as well as experiments.

      The course will begin with an introduction to databases, including modern document oriented approaches, and then move onto a description of the fundamentals of computers and programming. We will discuss how material structure might be systematically described, taking an inspiration from crystallography and bio-/cheminformatics. Materials models across the length scales will be introduced, with an emphasis on density functional based methods.

      The core computational task of optimisation will be investigated, along with its application to regression, machine learning and material structure prediction. We will discuss whether materials science has entered the era of "big data", and explore data mining as a way to make sense of large amounts of data.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Databases
      • - Computers and computation
      • - Symmetry
      • - Systematics of structure
      • - Models and theories
      • - Optimisation
      • - Regression/Machine learning
      • - Data mining
      • - High throughput computation
      • - Structure prediction
      • - Computational materials discovery/design
    • The aim of the first part of the course (lectures 1-8) is to teach the principles behind the choice of materials for critical parts of current and future generations of nuclear reactors from a materials science perspective. Central to this will be the consideration of the effects of radiation on the microstructure of these materials, e.g., the formation of dislocation loops, voids and bubbles and the stability of phases to irradiation from energetic particles such as neutrons. The effects of radiation on materials can be dramatic: a noticeable change in shape, swelling by some tens of per cent, hardening (more than five-fold), drastic embrittlement, a reduction in ductility, and stress corrosion cracking.

      The second part of the course (lectures 9-12) introduces the origins of radioactive (or nuclear) waste in the fission product spectrum and actinides produced in a power reactor. Methods of stabilising these diverse isotopes with different chemistries and half-lives are described. Specifically these are the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel, nuclear fuel re-processing and vitrification of the resulting fission products and the materials chemistry of tailored ceramics. The durability of these waste forms is examined with respect to the internal attack due to on going radioactive decay and the external attack from repository groundwaters and how these fit together in the consideration of long-term performance of a geological disposal facility.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Types of radiation and radioactive decay
      • - Fission and fusion reactors
      • - Radiation damage processes
      • - Chemical, mechanical and physical effects of irradiation on materials
      • - Materials for nuclear fuels
      • - Materials for cladding nuclear fuels
      • - Moderators in nuclear environments
      • - Radioactive waste: its origins and plans for its ultimate disposal
      • - Radioactive waste forms: spent fuel, re-processing, vitrifcation & ceramics
      • - Durability of radioactive waste forms: radiation damage over geological timescales
      • - Durability of radioactive waste forms: aqueous durability & geological disposal facilities.
    • In the first half of this course, we will explore the materials developments which have enabled the global microelectronics industry to achieve unprecedented device size scaling over many decades. The materials which have formed the basis of this development have been chosen, not because of their performance in isolation, but how they can be integrated into inexpensive, high accuracy, manufacturing processes. The course will include an introduction to the basic properties of transistors and the standard processing techniques which are used for their fabrication and how these have developed to enable continued device size reductions.

      The second half of this course begins by addressing the need to develop novel materials and devices for memory and logic processing for information communication technologies with a view of replacing semiconductor transistor based logic. The course then explores state-of-the-art techniques to characterise the performance and structure of materials and devices. The course will also cover important concepts in the field of spin-electronics such as spin-currents, spin-injection, spin accumulation and detection, and spin-dependent tunneling.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Introduction
      • - Field Effect Transistors
      • - Lithography
      • - Semiconductors and Doping
      • - Etching and CMP
      • - CMOS Fabrication Process
      • - The move to other materials
      • - Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMs)
      • - Characterisation
      • - Magnetic Devices
      • - Tunneling Devices
    • This course covers the basic principles and recent advances in energy harvesting technologies for small-power applications, including self-powered or autonomous systems, with a focus on the role of materials and nanotechnology in the development of these technologies.

      The course will cover photovoltaic, thermoelectric, piezoelectric, triboelectric and pyroelectric energy harvesting, and the relevant materials and device considerations. The course will also cover energy conversion and storage, including microbatteries and supercapacitors that complement energy harvesting technologies. These technologies are primarily aimed at wireless sensors, a selection of which will also be included in the course.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Lecture 1: Overall scope and objectives. Introduction to energy harvesting for autonomous systems; energy requirements and power sources. The role of materials in energy harvesting.
      • - Lectures 2 – 4: Photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting. Evolution of PV materials and devices. Nanostructuring as a route to cheap and efficient PV technologies.
      • - Lecture 5 – 7: Mechanical energy harvesting. Transduction mechanisms. Piezoelectric, electromagnetic and electrostatic generators. Nano-piezoelectric generators: materials, performance and example devices. New-generation triboelectric nanogenerators.
      • - Lecture 8. Thermoelectric energy harvesting. Basic thermoelectric theory. Thermoelectric figures of merit. Novel nanostructured thermoelectric materials and devices.
      • - Lecture 9: Thermal energy harvesting using pyroelectric materials. Thermodynamic cycles for pyroelectric energy harvesting. Nanostructured and micro-scale materials and devices.
      • - Lecture 10: Microbatteries. Thin film batteries for energy storage Materials for high-energy density 2D and 3D batteries.
      • - Lecture 11: Supercapacitors. Electrolyte and electrode materials. Fundamentals, challenges and applications.
      • - Lecture 12: Energy harvesting circuits and architectures. Power management electronics. Relevant circuits and systems.

6-Lecture courses

    • Soft materials such as polymers, gels, foams, colloids, emulsions and liquid crystals touch every aspect of our daily lives. These materials cannot be simply described as pure states of matter, such as gases, liquids or solids, but instead exhibit properties reminiscent of a given state depending on the timescale at which they are probed. Soft materials are at the forefront of many modern technologies in the information and communication, energy, biotechnology, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors.

      The course is designed to enable you to understand the fundamental properties and behaviour of soft materials in terms of the interactions between their component parts. We will focus on colloidal dispersions – systems in which small droplets or particles of one material are dispersed in a continuous medium of another material. The role of intermolecular forces and surface energy in controlling the stability of the colloidal system will first be unravelled. We will then consider solution- and gas-phase syntheses of different types of nanoparticles, before discussing their properties and potential applications as colloidal dispersions (solid in liquid). We will finish by considering the formation and stabilisation of foams (gas in liquid) and emulsions (liquid in liquid).

      This course complements the polymer topics covered in IA, IB, part II and part III (M6), although attendance at the latter is not a prerequisite for this course.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Intermolecular forces and self-assembly (1 lecture): Recap on thermal equilibrium, intermolecular forces (London, van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic effects), diffusion, aggregation and assembly.
      • - Colloidal materials: characteristics and stability (2 lectures): Classes of colloidal systems and their properties, time-dependent stability of colloidal dispersions, role of surface energy and interparticular interactions on colloidal stability, DVLO theory, electrical double layers, steric repulsion.
      • - Synthesis, applications and characterisation of colloids/nanoparticles (2 lectures): Bottom-up versus top-down approaches, solution-phase synthesis (homogeneous condensation, sol-gel, solvothermal), gas-phase synthesis (spray pyrolysis). Classes of materials considered include metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles. Characterisation techniques: dynamic light scattering and zeta potential.
      • - Foams and emulsions (1 lecture): Introduction to surfactants and their properties (surface tension, self-assembly), formation and stabilisation of foams (gas/liquid), La Place equation, emulsions: classes, preparation and stabilisation, role of emulsifiers.
    • Biomolecule interactions with materials are critical for a wide range of applications including bio-fouling, food processing, industrial chemistry, medical implantation and research and development. As such, this course will cover the fundamental processes occurring at material-biomolecule interfaces. As the majority of biological molecules exist in aqueous solutions, the course will start by investigating the interaction of materials with aqueous, ionic solutions.

      We will then investigate the interaction of small molecules with surfaces and compare this with the interaction of large molecules. Using the principles learnt from these single molecule associations, we will extend this to explore interfaces with a complex multi-biomolecule solution, for example as encountered during blood contact. Throughout this course we will discuss the experimental techniques used to examine biomolecule-surface interactions.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Applications of biomolecule association with materials
      • - Material interactions with aqueous solutions
      • - Forces and energetics of small molecule (amino acid/peptide) association with materials
      • - Large molecule-surface interactions including molecular density, conformation and orientation
      • - Biomolecule association from a multi-component solution
      • - Covalent biomolecule tethering
      • - Techniques to examine the biomolecule-surface interface
    • This course will first cover the unified chemical concepts of structure, growth, and stability for a range of functional inorganic materials, discussing their crucial roles in designing and discovering novel materials. The lectures will then examine the different types of reactions and methods employed in the synthesis of inorganic solid materials, with the main focus on chemical synthesis processes, giving specific examples, especially of metastable inorganic materials which cannot be prepared otherwise.

      The overall aim in the end is to understand the interdependencies of components in the 'materials-structure-property-functionality' relationship cycle i.e. (1) understanding the chemical structures of various inorganic materials, (2) evaluating their materials specific preparative strategies, (3) and predicting their physical properties (4) towards their relevant technological applications.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Lecture 1: Categorising inorganic compounds. Complexity in chemical structures with selected model systems, e.g. mixed valence chalcogenides, metastable antimonides and clathrates. Evaluating stability of inorganic materials (chemical thermodynamics, energetics and kinetics). Effects of structure and chemistry on phase transitions and phase diagrams of complex inorganic materials, e.g. perovskite oxides and layered chalcogenides.
      • - Lecture 2: Different types of chemical reactions for synthesising inorganic materials. Discussion of solid-state chemistry, solution based soft chemistry and reaction conditions. Roles of grain nucleation, ripening, grain boundaries for controlled growth, microstructure evolution. Understanding defects in materials. Roles of chemical doping, alloying, catalysis, surface modification and functionalisation in a reaction.
      • - Lecture 3: Differentiating 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' processing of crystalline inorganic materials in bulk, thin-film and nanoscale forms. Discussing top-down, solid-state and physical reaction methods to synthesise functional inorganic materials, focusing on ceramic method, mechanical alloying, combustion synthesis, microwave synthesis etc. with specific case studies.
      • - Lecture 4: Bottom-up, solution based chemical synthesis process such as hydrothermal, solvothermal, sol-gel, chemical co-precipitation, electrochemical, reflux methods, microemulsion, sonochemical and colloidal methods and their roles in controlling the size, shapes (0D, 1D, 2D and 3D), and architectures of many functional inorganic materials will be covered.
      • - Lecture 5: Examples of agreement and deviation of chemical concepts: research challenges, focusing on inorganic nanomaterials. Balancing the desired morphology, microstructure, composition and phase purity of inorganic materials for complex nanostructured materials, e.g. adopting hybrid physical-chemical reaction process. Discussion of post-synthesis processing e.g. annealing and consolidation of inorganic nanostructures.
      • - Lecture 6: Using characterisation tools to understand phase, stability, chemistry and composition of inorganic materials. Relating functionality with materials. Fabricating devices and advances in relation to industrial applications: bridging materials with potential applications. Discussing real research examples and research problems.
    • Handling and processing of powders is central to many areas of science and technology. Most ceramic materials can only be formed via powder processing, but powder metallurgy is also an important branch of materials science and polymers are frequently handled as (coarse) particles. Powder processing is also pivotal in many other industrial sectors, such as food, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, mining etc. Moreover, an understanding of the behaviour of assemblies of solid particles in fluids is essential in areas as diverse as filtration of Diesel exhaust and avoiding explosions in flour mills. Particle sizes of interest vary from a few nm to several mm (although most technological activity is focussed on the range from 100 nm to 100 microns).

      The first part of the course covers methods of powder production, techniques for their characterisation and approaches to handling and controlling of particle assemblies. The second part describes the methods used for consolidation of powders, including the forming of powder blends into "green" compacts, sintering of such compacts and spraying of powders to produce coatings or monolithic materials. Some relevant scientific background is also incorporated, including that governing particles in fluid streams and the flow of fluids through permeable media.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Lecture 1 – Production of Powders. Definition of powder. Overview of production routes. Mechanical comminution. Melt atomisation. Reactive processing. Spray drying.
      • - Lecture 2 – Particles in Fluids and Powder Characterisation. Powder particles in a fluid stream. Reynolds number and laminar flow. Drag forces, Stokes law and terminal velocities. Characterisation of particle size and shape. Microscopy. Sieving. Sedimentation. Light scattering. X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Surface area measurement. X-ray tomography.
      • - Lecture 3 – Classification and Handling of Powders. Sieving. Air classification (elutriation). Cyclone separation. Hazards of powder handling. Inhalation of particulate and the Stokes number. Explosion risks.
      • - Lecture 4 – Removal of Particulate from Fluids (Filtration). Filtration size ranges. Permeabilities, pressure gradients and flow rates. An example of filtration technology - Diesel particulate filters. Requirements and DPF design. Microstructure of DPFs. Performance of DPFs. Choice of material for DPFs.
      • - Lecture 5 - Powder Consolidation: Moulding and Sintering. Powder moulding. Diffusion during sintering. Liquid phase sintering and cermets. Reactive consolidation of powders. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP).
      • - Lecture 6 – Powder Consolidation: Thermal Spraying. Fluid dynamics and heat transfer during thermal spraying. Particle velocities and impact on the substrate. Particle thermal histories. Thermal spray techniques. Microstructure of thermal spray coatings. Combustion spraying. Plasma spraying.
    • This course starts with a description of the microstructural features that make a steel nanostructured. Focusing first on metallurgical phenomena such as martensitic and bainitic transformations, recrystallisation and precipitation, we present criteria to turn common steels into nanostructured steels. The effects of key elemental additions, severe plastic deformation, heat treatment time and temperature will be covered.

      A wide range of nanostructures is available for ferrous alloys. When the surface to volume ratio of the nanostructure increases, interesting interactions between defects in the crystal structure such as dislocations, vacancies and interstitial atoms occur. These allow for the combination of extraordinary properties, such as tensile strength and ductility exceeding 2.5 GPa and 10%. However, phase stability and low cost heat treatments become a challenge, especially for high temperature applications. Strong emphasis is placed on developing computational skills aiding in conceiving the new emerging families of nanostructured steels.

      This lecture course will cover:

      • - Definition of a nanostructured alloy.
      • - Stable and metastable nanoprecipitation strengthened alloys.
      • - Nanobainitic, nanograined and nanotwinned steels.
      • - The need for new experimental approaches and modelling techniques.
      • - Trends and future developments.