Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy

Picture Gallery

The Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy has a number of scientific images hung around the building. These have been produced by past and present members of the Department and are related to research that they have carried out here in Cambridge. Here you will find more information about what is shown in the image and the websites of the researchers and research groups involved are provided as a point of contact should you wish to find out even more detail. All acknowledged people are (or were members at the time the image was produced) of the Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge unless stated.

The Alumni webpages contain the departmental group photographs.

Crystal KaleidoscopeCrystal Kaleidoscope

This is a false colour convergent beam electron diffraction pattern recorded at 150kV parallel to the three-fold axis of lanthanum aluminate. In addition to the mesh of reflections at the centre, the pattern also shows concentric circles of reflections in successive higher order Laue zones. Odd numbered zones have only a single branch of intensity that corresponds to scattering solely from the oxygen atoms in the structure.

Acknowledgements: Paul A. Midgley
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

For further information contact Prof Paul Midgley, pam33@cam.ac.uk
Electron Microscopy group

Spherulite in a crystalline glazeSpherulite in a crystalline glaze

Detail of the centre of a spherulite in a commercial crystalline glaze from the Catalunya region of Spain. Zinc oxide is added deliberately to the glaze composition to cause the spherulites to form which consist of bundles of needle-shaped crystals of willemite, Zn2SiO4. Secondary spherulitic crystallisation can be seen on the peripheries of the fibre bundles within which it is not possible to identify individual crystals. Image taken using polarised light microscopy with a sensitive tint plate. Field of view is approximately 1.5 mm wide.

Acknowledgements: Kevin M. Knowles and F. S. H. B. Freeman, ‘Microscopy and microanalysis of crystalline glazes’, J. Microscopy, 215, 257-270 (2004). © Journal of Microscopy
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

Reproduced with permission of the Royal Microscopical Society
For further information contact Dr Kevin Knowles, kmk10@cam.ac.uk
Inorganic Microstructures group

Disclination of carbon nanotube liquid crystalsDisclination of carbon nanotube liquid crystals

Multiwall carbon nanotubes surrounding a s = -1/2 disclination in a nematic liquid crystalline phase with the nanotubes self-organized into a three-fold symmetric pattern. Image was acquired using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. Field of view is approximately 4 microns wide.

Acknowledgments: Shanju Zhang, Ian A. Kinloch, Alan H. Windle
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

For further information contact Prof Alan H. Windle, ahw1@cam.ac.uk
Macromolecular Materials Laboratory

Yttrium barium copper oxide ‘dragonflies’ Yttrium barium copper oxide ‘dragonflies’

Internal structure of yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) ink, prepared by sol-gel methods. The superconducting YBCO ink is jet-printed onto the substrate. Cracking occurs when the stable YBCO ink dries too quickly, giving this 'dragonfly' effect. Image taken by optical microscopy. Diagonal length of image approximately 125 microns.

Acknowledgements: Tarek Mouganie, Bartek A. Glowacki
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

For further information contact Dr Bartek Glowacki, bag10@cam.ac.uk
Applied Superconductivity and Cryoscience group

Cutting-edge aluminiumCutting-edge aluminium

An aluminium casting (2 mm wide) has been cut with scissors. The colour is caused by the surface layers of aluminium oxide present on all aluminium objects exposed to air; this layer has been artificially thickened. When viewed under polarised light, the alumina layer on each crystal of aluminium generates a different colour. The cutting of the casting has distorted the shape of these crystals.

Acknowledgements: Tom Quested, John Worth & Lindsay Greer
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

For further information contact Prof Lindsay Greer, alg13@cam.ac.uk
Microstructural Kinetics group

'Dancing' quantum dot 'Dancing' quantum dot

Plan view bright field transmission electron micrograph of a germanium/silicon quantum dot in a silicon matrix. The quantum dot, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, is coherently strained due to Ge/Si crystal lattice mismatches giving rise to strain induced banding contours. The straight edge at the top left shows the Si 110 plane. Field of view is approximately 620nm wide.

Acknowledgements: Diana Zhi, Paul Midgley, Rafal Dunin-Borkowski,
Don. W. Pashley, Bruce. A. Joyce (both Imperial College London)
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

For further information contact Prof Paul Midgley, pam33@cam.ac.uk
Electron Microscopy group

'Flaming' Nanowires'Flaming' Nanowires

The unique branched growth of these zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires was produced using vapour transportation methods. ZnO, which exhibits a direct bandgap of 3.37 eV at room temperature with a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV, is of condsiderable technological importance because of its potential use in short-wave devices, such as ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. In particular ZnO nanowires have been demonstrated in room-temperature UV lasing, and individual ZnO nanobelts have been demonstrated as field-effect transistors (FETs) and nanosensors. Secondary electron image captured using a field-emission-gun equipped scanning electron microscope (Jeol JSM6340F) with an accelerating voltage of 5 kV. Field of view is approximately 8 microns wide.

Acknowledgements: Ming Wei, Judith Driscoll
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

For further information contact Prof Judith Driscoll, jld35 @cam.ac.uk
Device Materials group

Spherulites in a crystalline glaze Spherulites in a crystalline glaze

A spherulite-glaze interface in a commercial crystalline glaze from the Catalunya region of Spain. Crystalline glazes are glazes within which devitrification (crystallisation) takes place during the glazing of a whiteware body, such as a porcelain pot. The crystals grow as two-dimensional spherulites within the glaze. Zinc oxide is added deliberately to the glaze composition to cause the spherulites to form which consist of bundles of needle-shaped crystals of willemite, Zn2SiO4. The glaze is at the top right of the image and as it is isotropic it has the sensitive tint colour under these conditions. Copious secondary spherulitic crystallisation, predominantly first-order yellow in colour but also showing the sensitive tint colour and second-order blue, can be seen at this interface within which it is not possible to identify individual crystals. Image taken using polarised light microscopy with a sensitive tint plate inserted at 45° to the extinction directions. Field of view is approximately 1.5 mm wide.

Acknowledgements: Kevin M. Knowles and F. S. H. B. Freeman, ‘Microscopy and microanalysis of crystalline glazes’, J. Microscopy, 215, 257-270 (2004). © Journal of Microscopy
Location: Arup Tower stairwell

Reproduced with permission of the Royal Microscopical Society
For further information contact Dr Kevin Knowles, kmk10@cam.ac.uk
Inorganic Microstructures group

Magnetic field lines around an iron wireMagnetic field lines around an iron wire

The image shows magnetic field lines around the end of an iron wire, which is magnetized along its length. The field of view is approximately 1µm. The image was acquired using electron holography in a field emission gun transmission electron microscope.

Acknowledgments: John Thong (National University of Singapore),
Ken Harada, Akira Tonomura, Tetsuya Akashi and Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Yoshihiko Togawa (all Hitachi Advanced Research Laboratory, Hatoyama, Japan),
Chris Boothroyd (Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore),
Rafal Dunin-Borkowski
Location: Arup Building tea room, level 4

For further information contact Prof Paul Midgley, pam33@cam.ac.uk
Electron Microscopy group

An iron particle inside a carbon nanotube An iron particle inside a carbon nanotube

The image shows a multi-walled carbon nanotube, approximately 190nm in diameter, containing a 35nm diameter iron crystal encapsulated inside it. Electron holography has been used to obtain a map of the magnetic field lines surrounding the iron particle, at a spatial resolution of approximately 5nm. The field lines show that the particle contains a single magnetic domain. An external magnetic field could be applied to such particles to exert a torque on the surrounding nanotube.

Acknowledgments: Takeshi Kasama, Krzysztof Koziol, Alan Windle, Rafal Dunin-Borkowski
Location: Arup Building tea room, level 4

For further information contact Prof Paul Midgley, pam33@cam.ac.uk
Electron Microscopy group

Magnetic domains in a thin cobalt film Magnetic domains in a thin cobalt film

The colours in the image show the different directions of the magnetic field in a layer of polycrystalline cobalt that has a thickness of only 20nm. The direction of the magnetic field in the film changes at the positions of domain walls. The field of view is approximately 200µm. The image was acquired using the Fresnel mode of Lorentz microscopy in a field emission gun transmission electron microscope. It was recorded out of focus to enhance the contrast of the domain walls, and then converted to a colour induction map by applying the Transport of Intensity Equation to the image intensity.

Acknowledgments: Anke Husmann (Toshiba Cambridge Research Laboratory),
Martha McCartney (Arizona State University),
Chris Boothroyd (Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore),
Rafal Dunin-Borkowski

For further information contact Prof Paul Midgley, pam33@cam.ac.uk
Electron Microscopy group